CELDT and AYP: AMAOs and Title III Accountability

Title III of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act provides funding to help English Learners (ELs) and immigrant students. Local Education Agencies (LEAs) receiving funds must meet 3 Annual Measurable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs) each year. AMAO 1 requires EL students to show progress in attaining English proficiency, as measured by the California English Language Development Test (CELDT). AMAO 2 requires EL students to demonstrate Proficiency on the CELDT. AMAO 3 requires the EL subgroup to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) objectives at the LEA level.

AMAO 1: Annual Progress on the CELDT

AMAO 1: Annual Progress on the CELDT

AMAO 1 is based on the California English Language Development Test (CELDT), which is the state's English language proficiency test for all students whose home language is not English. All students whose home language is not English must take the CELDT within 30 calendar days of enrolling in a California public school to determine classification as Fluent-English Proficient (FEP) or English Learner (EL). ELs must take it every year thereafter until they are Reclassified as Fluent-English Proficient (R-FEP).

AMAO 1 requires a changing (and generally growing) percentage of ELs to demonstrate progress, as charted above. The 2006-2007 dip in ELs required to demonstrate progress is due to the fact that SBE approved new targets in 2007 for the 2006-2007 to 2013-2014 school years to align with new CELDT performance level cut scores (i.e., the scaled scores required to reach each performance level), which are generally harder.

EL students demonstrate annual growth on the CELDT in one of 3 ways, depending on their CELDT performance the previous tested year*:

1. If an EL earned an Overall level of Beginning (1), Early Intermediate (2), or Intermediate (3) on the CELDT the previous year, he or she must gain a minimum of one performance level Overall for the current year. For example, if an EL student scored Early Intermediate (2) on the CELDT Overall in 2009, he or she must score at least Intermediate (3) on the CELDT Overall in 2010.

2. If an EL earned an Overall level of Early Advanced (4) or Advanced (5) on the CELDT the previous year but was not yet classified as Proficient on the CELDT, he or she must achieve proficiency on the CELDT for the current year. A student in grades 2-12 is considered Proficient on the CELDT only when he or she earns a performance level of 3 (Intermediate) or above in every domain and also a 4 (Early Advanced) or above Overall. K-1 students, however, only have to meet this criteria for Listening, Speaking, and Overall in order to score Proficient. Only when an EL student scores Proficient on the CELDT should he or she be considered for reclassification.

3. If an EL earned the Proficient status on the CELDT the previous year, he or she maintain that level for the current year.

*Beginning with 2009-2010 Title III accountability (as required by the U.S. Department of Education in the Notice of Final Interpretations on Title III released in October, 2008, and approved by the U.S. Department of Education in January and May, 2010), this merely has to be the most recent previous year in which the student was tested and does not have to be the previous school year if the student did not (for some reason) test during that year.

AMAO 2: Proficiency on the CELDT

AMAO 2: Proficiency on the CELDT

AMAO 2 is also based on the CELDT, only it requires a changing (and generally growing) percentage of ELs to demonstrate proficiency, as charted above. As noted earlier, a student in grades 2-12 is considered Proficient on the CELDT only when he or she earns a performance level of 3 (Intermediate) or above in every domain and also a 4 (Early Advanced) or above Overall (K-1 students, however, only have to meet this criteria for Listening, Speaking, and Overall in order to score Proficient). The 2006-2007 dip in ELs required to demonstrate proficiency is due to the fact that SBE approved new targets in 2007 for the 2006-2007 to 2013-2014 school years to align with new CELDT performance level cut scores (i.e., the scaled scores required to reach each performance level), which are generally harder.

Beginning with 2009-2010 Title III accountability (as required by the U.S. Department of Education in the Notice of Final Interpretations on Title III released in October, 2008, and approved by the U.S. Department of Education in January and May, 2010), AMAO 2 calculations involve the following changes:

1. Initial CELDT takers are included if they are classified as EL, since all ELs taking the CELDT are required to be included in AMAO 2 calculations (2009-2010 and after).

2. Two cohorts of students are used for AMAO calculations, as charted above: 1) ELs in language instruction educational programs for 5 years or more, and 2) ELs in language instruction educational programs for less than 5 years. The term "language instruction educational program" refers to the range of services that U.S. schools must offer EL students, such as instruction in English Language Development (ELD) standards. To determine a student's time in language instruction educational programs for Title III accountability, determine the time between the CELDT administration's date and the date the student was first enrolled in a U.S. school.

Beginning with 2009-2010 Title III accountability, both of the above student cohorts are included in determining the extent to which ELs are scoring Proficient on the CELDT, but different expectations are placed on the two groups (as charted above, with lines and expectations diverging in 2009-2010).

Prior to 2009-2010 Title III accountability, AMAO 2 was set up as follows:

The AMAO requirement is only made of EL students who could reasonably be expected to score Proficient on the CELDT for the current year, based on their meeting one or more of the following criteria:

1. Earned Intermediate (3) Overall the previous year

2. Earned Early Advanced (4) or Advanced (5) Overall the previous year who were also not Proficient the previous year

3. Earned Beginning (1) or Early Intermediate (2) Overall the previous year who were also enrolled in U.S. schools for at least 4 years (enrolled on or before June 30 of the year that is 4 years before the testing year)

4. Earned Beginning (1) or Early Intermediate (2) Overall the previous year who were also enrolled in U.S. schools within 4 years (enrolled after June 30 of the year that is 4 years before the testing year) but who also scored Proficient on the CELDT for the current year

AMAO 3: Meeting AYP Requirements for the EL Subgroup

AMAO 3 is based on AYP. It requires the following of the EL subgroup at the LEA or consortia level:

1. Meet the AYP participation rate of 95% in both English-Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematics. In other words, 95% of the EL subgroup must take the appropriate ELA and Mathematics state tests, which are the CAHSEE at grade 10 or STAR tests (CST, CMA, or CAPA) at all other grade levels.

2. Meet the increasing AYP proficiency AMO (as shown above, 1st table) in ELA on the appropriate ELA state test, which is the CAHSEE at grade 10 or a STAR test (CST, CMA, or CAPA) at all other grade levels. Note that varied types of LEAs have different proficiency criteria.

3. Meet the increasing AYP proficiency AMO (as shown above, 2nd table) in Mathematics on the appropriate Mathematics state test, which is the CAHSEE at grade 10 or a STAR test (CST, CMA, or CAPA) at all other grade levels. Note that varied types of LEAs have different proficiency criteria.

More Information

Visit http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/ac/t3/documents/infoguide0910.pdf for help understanding Title I and accountability. Reference the "CELDT: Understanding Scores" lesson in this help manual for information on determining CELDT proficiency and understanding scores.

Abbreviations and Terms

AMAO - Annual Measurable Achievement Objective, related to Title III

AMO - Annual Measurable Objective, related to AYP

AYP - Adequate Yearly Progress

CAHSEE - California High School Exit Examination (used to determine 10th grade students meeting AYP AMOs for AMAO 3)

CAPA - California Alternate Performance Assessment (alternative to CST for students with severe cognitive disabilities; much easier than CST)

CELDT - California English Language Development Test

CMA - California Modified Assessment (alternative to CST for qualifying Special Education students; much harder than CAPA but easier than CST)

CST - California Standards Test (for all students who do not qualify for the CAPA or CMA)

EL - English Learner (this includes all LEP students, as well as the R-FEP students who have not scored Proficient or Advanced on the ELA CST at least three times - not necessarily consecutive - since reclassification)

ELA - English-Language Arts (tested within the STAR Program for grades 2-11)

LEA - Local Education Agency (in most cases, this is akin to a school district)

LEP - Limited English Proficient

NCLB - No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001

R-FEP - Reclassified as Fluent-English Proficient

SBE - State Board of Education

STAR - Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR Program includes CAPA, CMA, CST, and STS and orchestrates EAP testing)